Depending on its context, an ambiguous word can refer to multiple, potentially unrelated, meanings. Mainstream static word embeddings, such as Word2vec and GloVe, are unable to reflect this dynamic semantic nature. Contextualised word embeddings are an attempt at addressing this limitation by computing dynamic representations for words which can adapt based on context.
A system's task on the WiC dataset is to identify the intended meaning of words. WiC is framed as a binary classification task. Each instance in WiC has a target word w, either a verb or a noun, for which two contexts are provided. Each of these contexts triggers a specific meaning of w. The task is to identify if the occurrences of w in the two contexts correspond to the same meaning or not. In fact, the dataset can also be viewed as an application of Word Sense Disambiguation in practise.
WiC features multiple interesting characteristics:
- It is suitable for evaluating a wide range of applications, including contextualized word and sense representation and Word Sense Disambiguation;
- It is framed asa binary classification dataset, in which, unlike Stanford Contextual Word Similarity (SCWS), identical words are paired with each other (in different contexts); hence, a context-insensitive word embedding model would perform similarly to a random baseline;
- It is constructed using high quality annotations curated by experts.
Participate in WiC's CodaLab competition: submit your results on the test set and see where you stand in the leaderboard!
Link: WiC CodaLab Competition
WiC is featured as a part of the SuperGLUE benchmark.
WiC was also used for a shared task at SemDeep-5 IJCAI workshop.
Dataset detailsPlease see the following paper:
WiC: the Word-in-Context Dataset for Evaluating Context-Sensitive Meaning Representations
M.T. Pilehvar and J. Camacho-Collados, NAACL 2019 (Minneapolis, USA).
Note: Results slightly differ between NAACL and Arxiv versions of the paper. Please take results in the Arxiv version, which is more up to date, as baseline for your evaluations.
Examples from the dataset
|F||bed||There's a lot of trash on the bed of the river||I keep a glass of water next to my bed when I sleep|
|F||land||The pilot managed to land the airplane safely||The enemy landed several of our aircrafts|
|F||justify||Justify the margins||The end justifies the means|
|T||beat||We beat the competition||Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship|
|T||air||Air pollution||Open a window and let in some air|
|T||window||The expanded window will give us time to catch the thieves||You have a two-hour window of clear weather to finish working on the lawn|
|Sentence-level contextualised embeddings||Implementation||Accuracy %|
|SenseBERT-large†||Levine et al (2019)||72.1|
|KnowBERT-W+W†||Peters et al (2019)||70.9|
|RoBERTa||Liu et al (2019)||69.9|
|BERT-large||Wang et al (2019)||69.6|
|Ensemble||Gari Soler et al (2019)||66.7|
|ELMo-weighted||Ansell et al (2019)||61.2|
|Word-level contextualised embeddings||Implementation||Accuracy %|
|WSD†||Loureiro and Jorge (2019)||67.7|
|LessLex||Colla et al (2020)||59.2|
|Sentence level baselines|
|Sentence Bag-of-words||WiC's paper||58.7|
|Sentence LSTM||WiC's paper||53.1|
LicensingThis dataset is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License.
- [LessLex] Davide Colla, Enrico Mensa and Daniele P. Radicioni. LessLex: Linking Multilingual Embeddings to SenSe Representations of LEXical Items. Computational Linguistics, 2020.
- [SenseBERT] Yoav Levine, Barak Lenz, Or Dagan, Dan Padnos, Or Sharir, Shai Shalev-Shwartz, Amnon Shashua, Yoav Shoham. SenseBERT: Driving Some Sense into BERT. Arxiv 2019.
- [KnowBERT] Matthew E. Peters, Mark Neumann, Robert Logan, Roy Schwartz, Vidur Joshi, Sameer Singh, Noah A. Smith. Knowledge Enhanced Contextual Word Representations. EMNLP 2019.
- [RoBERTa] Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, Veselin Stoyanov. RoBERTa: A Robustly Optimized BERT Pretraining Approach. Arxiv 2019.
- [BERT] Jacob Devlin, Ming-Wei Chang, Kenton Lee, Kristina Toutanova: BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding. arXiv:1810.04805 2018.
- [Context2vec] Oren Melamud, Jacob Goldberger, and Ido Dagan. Context2vec: Learning generic context embedding with bidirectional LSTM. CoNLL 2016.
- [Elmo] Matthew E. Peters, Mark Neumann, Mohit Iyyer, Matt Gardner, Christopher Clark, Kenton Lee, Luke Zettlemoyer. Deep contextualized word representations. NAACL 2018.
- [DeConf] Mohammad Taher Pilehvar and Nigel Collier. De-Conflated Semantic Representations. EMNLP 2016.
- [SW2V] Massimiliano Mancini, Jose Camacho-Collados, Ignacio Iacobacci, and Roberto Navigli. Embedding words and senses together via joint knowledge-enhanced training. CoNLL 2017.
- [JBT] Maria Pelevina, Nikolay Arefyev, Chris Biemann, and Alexander Panchenko. Making sense of word embeddings. RepL4NLP 2016.
- [WSD] Daniel Loureiro and Alípio Jorge. LIAAD at SemDeep-5 Challenge: Word-in-Context (WiC). SemDeep 2019.
- [Ensemble] Aina Garí Soler, Marianna Apidianaki and Alexandre Allauzen. LIMSI-MULTISEM at the IJCAI SemDeep-5 WiC Challenge: Context Representations for Word Usage Similarity Estimation. SemDeep 2019.
- [ELMo-weighted] Alan Ansell, Felipe Bravo-Marquez and Bernhard Pfahringer. An ELMo-inspired approach to SemDeep-5's Word-in-Context task. SemDeep 2019.
- [SuperGLUE] Alex Wang, Yada Pruksachatkun, Nikita Nangia, Amanpreet Singh, Julian Michael, Felix Hill, Omer Levy, Samuel R. Bowman. SuperGLUE: A Stickier Benchmark for General-Purpose Language Understanding Systems.